IRAN ranks first in the region in conducting research on fertility, infertility and fertility treatment (IVF, IVM, IMSI, ICSI, etc). Over the past years, Iran has made giant strides in fertility treatment studies to become a pioneering country in this field. Royan Institute, a world-renowned leader in the stem cell and embryology research, is an advanced research and treatment center with many astonishing achievements and developments, providing best paper selection awards and best research achievement awards in many countries throughout the years. The center has managed the first IVF birth (1993) and first frozen embryo birth in Tehran (1996).
The main benefit of a fertility treatment is achieving the goal of having a baby and becoming a parent. Thankfully, due to the development of new techniques and methods many couples become pregnant every year. Currently, we have witnessed a variety of Fertility Treatments and procedures available. Usually, the noninvasive procedures are used at first. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) commonly referred to as IVF. it is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.
There are high end hospitals with high success rates, equipped with modern and state-of-the-art technologies in Tehran, Yazd, and many other cities that offer help and assistance to those in need of fertility care. These centers supply advanced equipment of in vitro fertilizations(IVF) and offer excellent assistance in reproductive technology.
Services and treatments provided by these centers include Infertility clinics, Cell therapy centers, Stem cell biology and technology, Reproductive biomedicine, Endocrinology & Female fertility, Embryology, Reproductive Genetics, Epidemiology & Reproductive health, Reproductive Imaging and many more.
The best fertility treatment options are:
IVF is a fertilization process which involves extracting eggs and retrieving sperm samples, and then joining them in a laboratory dish. After that, the embryo can be transferred to the uterus. The term “in vitro” means outside the body. IVF is an effective type of assisted reproductive technology. IVF may be recommended for various reasons, such as male factor infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss or genetic abnormalities.
In Vitro Maturation (IVM)
IVM is an assisted reproductive technology similar to IVF, which involves extracting eggs from the ovaries before the woman is matured. The eggs are matured in the laboratory prior to fertilization. While in the conventional IVF method, eggs are collected when they are mature. In the IVM procedure, the woman doesn’t need to use as many medications and injections as it is used in the IVF method.
Egg and Ovarian Cortex Freezing
Egg and ovarian cortex freezing is a procedure involving freezing and storage of the ovarian tissue. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or surgical procedures that require removal of the ovaries or uterus, affect women’s reproductive system. Ovarian cortex freezing can be performed before cancer treatments so that these women may become pregnant in the future. After the cancer treatments, the ovarian tissue can be placed inside the body again.
Egg Donation and Sperm Donation
There are many women that don’t have the ability to become pregnant by their own eggs due to various reasons such as chromosomal abnormally, premature ovarian failure, previous disease, early menopause or poor quality of the egg. Egg donation is a process which enables these women to become parents using donated eggs from fertile women during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process.
Embryo donation is usually done when a couple have completed their family and have excess embryos. Embryo donation can be recommended for women who have gone through the menopause or for couples having the risk of passing on a genetic disease or are unlikely to become parents using their own eggs or sperm for fertility treatment.
Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) uses a more powerful microscope for sperm selection compared to ICSI. This technique enables specialists to observe the sperm in more detail (such as the nucleus containing the sperm’s genetic material); so sperms with better quality can be selected to increase the pregnancy rates in comparison to the conventional ICSI method.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technology which involves injecting a single sperm directly into a mature egg. Once the egg is fertilized, it can be placed in the woman’s uterus. This procedure is mainly used to treat conditions of male infertility, such as low sperm count, vasectomy or low sperm motility. ICSI may also be recommended if there were problems during previous IVF fertilization processes.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a specific type of artificial insemination used as a fertility treatment. This procedure involves placing sperm inside the uterus to increase the number of sperm reaching the fallopian tube. The goal of this method is to increase the fertilization chance. Low sperm count or decreased sperm mobility are the most common indications for IUI, however this procedure may be used to treat other conditions such as cervical condition, Ejaculation dysfunction or Unexplained infertility.
Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction)
Microdissection or microscopic testicular sperm extraction (TESE) involves surgical procedure to retrieve sperm to use in fertility treatments. This method is used to improve the outcome of sperm retrieval, especially in men with previous unsuccessful sperm retrieval attempts using conventional TESE procedures. Microdissection TESE is usually recommended for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (abnormal sperm production), which is a common cause of infertility in men.
Ovulation Induction (OI)
Ovulation induction involves medical procedures for treating infertility due to conditions such as ovulation disorders or male factor. Medication is used to stimulate mature follicles development in the ovaries of women who are not able to develop mature follicles regularly. The most common medications used for ovulation induction include clomiphene cirate (clomid), metformin, gonadotropins and parlodel.
Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS) involves the removal of one or more cells from an IVF or ICSI embryo to test for Chromosomal abnormalities, which are the main cause of implant embryo failures and miscarriages. This procedure may be recommended for couples being treated by IVF or ICSI due to fertility issues. PGS provides the ability to avoid having a child at a high risk of having genetic disease, before implantation.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used to detect genetic diseases within embryos. This technique provides the ability to avoid passing on certain genetic disorders to the child, before implantation. PGD is especially used when one or both parents has a certain genetic disorder, to check if the embryo is also affected; while PGS is usually performed when it is assumed that parents don’t have any genetic defects and the embryo is tested for aneuploidy.
Although assisted reproductive technology is commonly used for fertility treatment, there are various male and female structural problems causing infertility which need to be treated by surgical procedures. Reproductive surgery can be used to correct problems in women such as tubal obstruction, uterine fibroids and endometriosis using procedures such as laparotomy microsurgery and laparoscopy. Also, it can treat certain anatomical defects in men using procedures such as varicocelectomy and vasoepididymostomy.
Surrogacy is a procedure which uses one woman’s uterus for implanting an embryo to give birth to a baby for another couple or person. The woman who carries the embryo is called the surrogate. This procedure requires IVF to implant the fertilized egg in the surrogate’s uterus. Surrogacy may be a suitable solution if there are conditions that make it dangerous or impossible for you to become pregnant and to give birth, Medical conditions such as malformation or absence of the womb, previous IVF implantation failures or recurrent pregnancy loss.
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