Otolaryngology, commonly known as ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) is a branch of medicine that specializes in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of Ear, Nose, and Throat. In a broader view, it specializes in head and neck diseases, providing comprehensive services for all ages, from newborns to adults. Iranian otolaryngology specialists are among the best in the Middle East, offering ENT services using the latest approaches and technologies.

Coping with chronic ear infection, tonsillitis, sinus problems, impaired sense of hearing, problems in eating, breathing and speech, malignant and benign tumors in ears, nose, throat, head, and neck, acid reflux (GERD), and cancers such as oral, salivary gland, and skin cancer affecting the head, neck, and nose, are some common examples within key areas of concern in ENT.

ENT doctor examining patient's ear in his office

Among a wide range of symptoms that can be associated with ear, nose, and throat problems, the most common are listed below:

Dizziness, Watery and itchy eyes, Runny and itchy nose, Nose bleeds, Painful or swollen ear(s), Ringing or buzzing sounds (tinnitus), Hearing loss, Blockage or a full sensation in the ear, Sore or swollen throat, Loss of voice (laryngitis), Jaw pain, Excessive snoring causing frequent waking

To relieve the troubling symptoms, our highly skillful ENT specialists with years’ of expertise, perform a number of helpful procedures including: sinus surgery, pediatric ENT surgery, head and neck surgery, and Balloon Sinuplasty.  

It is also noted that facial plastic and reconstructive surgeries are also within the area of expertise of ENT.

ENT has a wide range of sub-specialties; each includes various treatments. ENT’s sub-specialties are as follows:

Otology: Otology focuses on treatment of infection, disease, and damage to ear.

Rhinology: The main focus of Rhinology is treatment of sinus and nasal disorders to improve breathing and nasal function.

Laryngology: Laryngology focuses on treatment of the infections of throat and larynx to facilitate speech.

Head and neck surgery: Head and neck surgery specializes in surgery on cysts, salivary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and head and neck cancers.

Facial plastics: Facial plastics refers to cosmetic procedures including Rhinoplasty, and face lifts, and also reconstructive procedures such as resetting the jaw.

Pediatrics: This field of ENT specializes in problems requiring treatment at a very young age. These problems include airway problems, infections of adenoids or tonsils that require to be removed.


Ear Surgeries

cochlear implants on ear

Cochlear Implants

Cochlear implants are neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into the ears by a surgical procedure to give the auditory perception to a person with a severe hearing loss. By providing an electric hearing, cochlear implants bypass the normal acoustic hearing process. It means that the sound sensation is the result of the sound that is converted to electric signals which directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Cochlear implantation is performed under general anesthesia with incisions being made in the back of the ears.

chronic otitis for ears

Chronic Otitis Media (COM)

Otitis media is a series of inflammatory diseases affecting the middle ear. Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion(OME) are the main types of otitis media. Chronic otitis media (COM) is a long-standing, persistently draining perforation of the eardrum (tympanic membrane), which usually begins with AOM. COM can be treated either by medications or surgical procedures.

ear tumor treatment

Ear Tumors

Ear tumors are either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Sometimes noncancerous tumors develop in the ear canal and block it, which causes hearing loss or an accumulation of earwax. Cancerous tumors may develop on the external ear because of constant exposure to sunlight or chronic ear infections. If detected at early stages, they can be removed surgically by radiation therapy. Late-stage tumors, however, require a more complicated procedure to be treated.


hearing reconstruction for ears by ENT surgery

Other Hearing Loss Treatments

Ossicular chain reconstruction, Stapedectomy, Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA), Middle Ear Implants

Head and Neck Surgeries

Otorhinolaryngology for women, oropharyngeal surgery, ENT

Oropharyngeal Cancer Surgery

Oropharyngeal Cancer is caused by the growth of malignant cells in the oral cavity or oropharynx.  To treat oropharyngeal cancer, different types of surgeries can be employed depending on the stage and the location of the cancer tissues. A surgery is usually the best option to treat and oropharyngeal cancer.

areas for laryngeal surgery in larynx diseases

Laryngeal Surgery (Laryngectomyy)

Laryngeal surgery or laryngectomy is a major surgical procedure that is performed under general anesthesia to treat diseases, especially cancer, in the larynx or voice box. In this surgery, the larynx is completely or partially removed in order to prevent the cancerous cells to spread to other areas.

Thyroidectomy and Parathyroidectomy in Iran

Thyroidectomy and Parathyroidectomy

The surgical removal of all or a part of the thyroid gland is called thyroidectomy. This invasive procedure is for patients suffering from thyroid cancer or some other diseases of the thyroid gland such as goiter or hyperthyroidism. In the same vein, parathyroidectomy refers to the surgical removal of the parathyroid glands that are right behind your thyroid gland.

anatomy of endoscopic skull base resection in patients suffering from tumor

Endoscopic Resection of Skull Base Tumors

The area of the brain behind the eyes and nose is called skull base. Tumors that grow in that area are difficult to treat because they are very close to nerves and blood vessels.  Gaining access to skull base tumors for treatment has become easier with new technologies and approaches. One of the approaches for removing skull base tumors is minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery, in which the tumor is approached through the nose, without incisions in the face or head.

Nose and Sinus Surgeries

functional endoscopic sinus surgery anatomy

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat inflammatory or infectious sinus diseases such as nasal polyps, some cancers, chronic rhinosinusitis not responding to drugs, and decompression of eye sockets/optic nerve in Graves ophthalmopathy. in order to improve sinus ventilation, the surgeon uses nasal endoscopes in FESS to widen the nasal drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses.


An adenotonsillectomy is a surgery to remove both the tonsils and adenoids. Generally used to treat enlarged tonsils and adenoids in children, an adenotonsillectomy is performed under general anesthesia through the mouth, taking less than one hour. Doctors may recommend an adenotonsillectomy if a child has breathing problems, snoring, restlessness, or sleep apnea.

nose anatomy including nasal bridge

Rhinoplasty and Nasal Reconstruction

Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure for reshaping, correcting, and improving the nose both for aesthetic or medical purposes. Rhinoplasty, however, is often used to refer to cosmetic nose surgeries, while common functional nasal surgeries are septoplasty and turbinate reduction surgery, which are aimed at straightening a deviated septum and overly enlarged turbinates, respectively.

airway blockage in patients with obstructive sleep disorder and apena

Sleep Apnea Surgery

Sleep apnea is a type of sleep disorder in which a person’s breathing unintentionally stops and is interrupted during sleep. As a result of pauses and breaks in normal breathing, less oxygen is spread to the brain and throughout the body. Once the airway is opened and the signal for breathing is received, it triggers the person with this sleep disorder to snort, take a deep breath, or even wake up with a feeling of choking, smothering and gasping for air. Sleep apnea is also the main cause of snoring, which is sometimes very annoying for people who share a bed or room. The goal of a sleep apnea surgery is to widen the air passage in the throat or nose by altering some parts of these organs, depending on what is blocking the airway, in order to make it easier for the air to pass into the body during the sleep.

Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy treatment

Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)

Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a surgical procedure to treat patients with lacrimal sac or nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). NLDO, which is either congenital or acquired, leads to other conditions called epiphora (watery eye caused by excessive secretion of tears because of the blockage of the lacrimal passages or nasolacrimal duct) and dacryocystitis (infection of the tear sac).  The aim of the DCR is to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when a nasolacrimal duct dysfunction occurs.

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